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英語必修一語法:定語從句 (一)——關系代詞引導的定語從句

作者:未知     來源:學苑新報    2016-09-19

 
  定語從句是在復合句中起定語作用,修飾名詞、代詞或整個主句的從句。被定語從句修飾的詞叫先行詞。引導定語從句的關系詞有關系代詞(that, which, who, whom, whose)和關系副詞(where, when, why等)。
 
  關系代詞在定語從句中的作用:1. 連接主句和定語從句;2. 指代先行詞;3. 在定語從句中充當一定的成分(主語、表語、賓語、定語等)。
 
  1. 關系代詞that和which
 
 ?、?that在定語從句中可作主語或賓語,既可以指人也可以指物。指人時可以和who或whom互換,指物時可以和which互換。that在定語從句中作賓語時,??墑÷?。② which可在定語從句中作主語或賓語,指物,可以和that互換。作賓語時,??墑÷?。如:
 
  The girl who / that is singing is my sister. (作主語,指人)
 
  Luckily, my friend didn’t take the bus that / which had an accident. (作主語,指物)
 
  The teacher (whom / that / who) they are talking with is very friendly. (作賓語,指人)
 
  Soon I received the clothes (that / which) my mother bought for me. (作賓語,指物)
 
  ★ 在下列情況下,一般只用that而不用which:
 
 ?、?先行詞被序數詞或形容詞最高級修飾時。如:
 
  The first English novel that I read was Cities.
 
  This is the most exciting football game that I have ever seen.
 
 ?、?先行詞為all, everything, anything, nothing, little, few, much, none, the one等不定代詞時。如: Is there anything that I can do for you?
 
 ?、?先行詞被all, any, every, few, little, no, some等詞修飾時。如:
 
  You can take any seat that is free.
 
 ?、?先行詞被the only, the very, the last等修飾時。如:
 
  This is the only thing that we can do now.
 
 ?、?先行詞中既有人又有物時。如:
 
  The boy and the dog that are in the picture are very lovely.
 
 ?、?主句的主語是which或who時。如:
 
  Which is the car that has taken us there?
 
  ★ 在下列情況下,一般只用which而不用that:
 
 ?、?先行詞指物且關系代詞緊跟介詞,作介詞的賓語時。如:
 
  The house in which we live is very large.
 
  This is the book of which the teacher is speaking.
 
 ?、?在限定性定語從句中先行詞為that時。如:
 
  That which is well done is twice done.
 
  2. 關系代詞who和whom
 
 ?、?who在定語從句中作主語,指人。如:
 
  The girl who gives me the pen is my best friend.
 
 ?、?whom在定語從句中作賓語,指人。在口語和非正式文體中可用who或that替換,也可以省略。如:
 
  The girl (whom) I gave the pen to is my best friend.
 
  3. 關系代詞whose
 
  whose既可指人也可指物,在定語從句中作定語,其后接名詞。如:
 
  The boys whose names were called stood up.
 
  I’d like a room whose window is clean and large.
 
  語法練習:
 
  用適當的關系代詞(that, which, who, whom, whose)填空。
 
  1. You’ll find taxis waiting at the bus station_______________ you can take to reach your family.
 
  2. The old town has narrow streets and small houses_______________ are built close to each other.
 
  3. I’ve become good friends with several of the students in my school _______________ I met in the English speech contest last year.
 
  4. I think this is the most beautiful place ______________I have ever visited.
 
  5. In China, the number of cities is increasing _________development is recognized across the world.
 
  6. This is the very house _______________ we visited last year.
 
  7. The girl _______________ father works in a hospital wants to be a doctor in the future.
 
  8. He visited the teachers and the school _____________ he remembered.
 
  9. The clock is that _______________ can tell us the time.
 
  10. The thought of going back home was all_______________ kept him happy while he was working there.
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